由于国际仲裁是一个全球现象, 它的做法是分散在各大洲和灵活性已经成为其关键因素之一. A growing debate in International Arbitration highlights the tensions between the diversity of culture and practice in proceedings, and the need for harmonization. While harmonization would increase predictability in the procedural process, 在诉讼程序的灵活性允许, 其他益处之外, 自定义配合的可能性, 案件具体过程, 由法律团队与设计实用, 战略, 和记创造性的因素.
仲裁已经发展成为解决争端的首选方法，并导致相互作用来自不同法律背景的人之间. In the interest of efficiency, 这些相互作用引发通过条约和软法律对程序的统一通用的举动.
当事人可以自由他们认为最合适的制度规则适用于他们的特定争端. Despite the suitability of party autonomy and the great number of procedural alternatives available, 这是一个事实，当事人往往最终做事以同样的方式，选择了一套规则，他们认为更有效率 (或者说仅仅是更受欢迎).
Counsel’s and arbitrator’s influence and guidance also contribute to harmonization. Lawyers will often suggest rules that they are familiar with and that seem preferable to them. Arbitrators regularly suggest the same or similar procedures across cases for reasons of comfort and ease.
国际文书设定的总体框架, represent a political desire to move toward harmonization and create a model ground for procedural rules. The Geneva treaties of 1923 和 1927 是朝着承认仲裁条款和裁决的第一步 (后来到纽约公约中结晶 1958).
The underlying purpose of UNCITRAL was to provide for general harmonization and set up a minimal standard to cope with the flaws that disparities can create. The UNCITRAL Model Law has been used by many countries as a basis to adopt their own domestic law and become more arbitration friendly. Its purpose was to achieve uniformity of procedural law throughout the world. While it is true that choosing a place / 仲裁的位子将在一组特定的规则带来, 事实上，这些国家的规则趋同感谢示范法恳求一个统一的程序.
The availability of the jurisprudence and its global use has also influenced and contributed to harmonization. The ICSID Convention has played a key role in this matter.
许多客户在合同中加入仲裁条款，主要是因为他们不希望去法院, not because they know what going to arbitration entails. For this reason, it is crucial that the arbitration community provides them with a strong degree of guidance. The epistemic community shares the same expertise and is moved by similar objectives, 无疑在促进仲裁实践中以类似的方式兴趣.
虽然这是可以理解的，各国在采取类似的法律有很大的政治利益, 人们可能不知道为什么他们几乎总是做同样的事情以同样的方式考虑提供很大程度的灵活性. That they want to attract business to their own countries (并采用仲裁友好的框架，更大的可预见性这样做) 一件事, 但不要他们也有在区分自己有浓厚的兴趣? Arbitration is a business in itself and the very existence of 仲裁地点巴黎 显示国家的意志，在声誉方面和最佳实践的相互竞争.
Arbitration institutions have historically been very influential in this process. When the ICC changes its arbitration rules, it is likely that other institutions will consider those changes and use the guidance provided by the leading institution to modify their own rules. More and more arbitrations are institutional and rules now tend to converge rather than differ.
Professional associations such as the IBA provide guidance through their notes and rules. While civil and common lawyers often disagree on what to do with the evidence, 国际律师协会规则设置如何处理这个问题的共同而灵活的基础, 现在正在使用 60% of arbitrations. It can be argued that soft law relating to the law of evidence provides for a degree of convergence of the two legal traditions and for a common ground that lawyers often need.
该 2012 由玛丽皇后大学进行，并通过赞助怀特国际仲裁调查 & Case dealt with current and preferred practices in the arbitral process. It led to the conclusion that there is indeed a general common practice on how proceedings are conducted and how evidence is managed. 例如, 有盘问的成效准共识, 专家证人的证据, and that fact witness evidence should be offered by exchange of witness statements. This has become a general global framework.
Arguments opposing a move toward a model procedure
虽然这是事实因素并汇聚朝着国际仲裁程序的最佳实践, 若干因素防止统一. 第一, 虽然我们不能怀疑仲裁界的目标和期望有关程序可以支持融合的存在, one cannot argue that the practice of arbitration is limited to the arbitration community. The majority of arbitration cases involve lawyers whose practices are not arbitration. These lawyers may not see many arbitration cases in their careers and their individual litigation backgrounds will guide their conduct, 从而导致了不同的程序之间的目标从业. Said differently, 仲裁专家组成的全球仲裁界不会共享相同的意见，参与仲裁的当地律师的几次在他们的生活.
此外, the existence of a model procedure assumes that all players have reached a consensus on the practice. Such uniformity is not the reality of arbitration and there are many grounds for debate. 例如, some lawyers appoint an arbitrator that they wish to be assisted by an administrative assistant. The debate relates to his duties, 他应该被起草奖? Opinions diverge on this point.
There are many new local markets becoming places of arbitrations. The emergence of these new players leads to an increasing number of arbitrations being handled locally, where practice may differ greatly from other places. New emerging players may not agree that best practices for others also constitute best practices for themselves and would, 例如, 考虑党派代表律师协会准则非常不同.
经常在程序影响最大的一个是仲裁员本人. Arbitrators’ preferences for procedure remain fairly consistent across their caseloads and vary greatly when compared to other arbitrators. Some may not want post-hearing briefs whereas others do away with direct examination. 然而, 谁主张听力后内裤仲裁人可以预期该过程适用于他的许多情况下.
沿着相同的路线, 当事人可能会犹豫，提出修改仲裁员的实际原因程序期望. One wants the arbitrator to like him and like his case; 如果仲裁员提出的程序令一些, 一个人必须真的不知道，如果提出修正案的程序真的是个好主意.
在国际仲裁模型程序将确保案件准备稳定性和安全性. It could reduce costs by promoting predictability and allowing parties to organize their cases quicker and with ease. 今天已经, 有从业者可以期待在每个仲裁遇到某些可靠的程序方面的问题.
- 第一, 申索陈述书，预计将详细介绍和证据支持. 这不是在所有的法律传统的情况下普通法律师们通常会提供索赔骨骼声明通过发现来补充.
- 第二, 有限的发现是可用. 双方可以从对方要求的文件如果这些文件有助于建立自己的案例.
- 第三, 当事人有听证的权利. Hearings are automatic in common law jurisdictions whereas they are not in civil law jurisdictions. International Arbitration practitioners can rely on the fact that they always have a right to a hearing but may also decide to waive this right.
- 第四, 这是没有必要引入或在聆讯进行身份验证的证据. 证据引进和认证是目前在普通法司法管辖区的做法负担.
- 第五, 当事人和仲裁庭决定程序一起. Whether or not parties decide to exercise their right to participate in determining the procedural process is another consideration.
- 第六, witnesses are examined by both arbitrators and counsel. Counsel examines witnesses in common law jurisdictions while the judge examines witnesses in civil law jurisdictions.
- 第七, 律师将在他进行直接检查的能力是有限的. The witness statement usually serves as the direct examination and one will have an opportunity to supplement this statement only if something new comes up afterwards.
- 第八, 双方和仲裁庭可以指定专家. Parties should always anticipate the appointment of experts and plan accordingly.
- 第九, 律师可以准备并支付证人和专家. 该IBA指引党的代表证实，当事人可以支付在听证会的筹备合理开支证人和专家, 时间上的损失, 和专家的合理收费.
- 最后, 律师可, 明知不, make false submissions of facts to the tribunal. This is analogous to the rule in the United States whereas French law does not address the issue. If parties do make false submissions of facts, 审裁处可作出不利的推论或修改双方的律师费和法庭费的分配.
A model procedure would be evil
国际仲裁程序的特点是它的灵活性. Parties can tailor the procedure to their individual needs and choose from a wide range of procedural options. Many arbitration proceedings look similar but, 作为绝不会有相同的情况下, 永远不应该有相同的程序.
对模型过程中的解决方案必然损害这种灵活性. 正如一位医生沉思, “为什么买宜家的时候可以有定制家具?“
该 2012 由玛丽皇后大学进行的国际仲裁调查显示，从业者担心，这个过程已经变得过于调控.
国际仲裁的做法需要考虑到文化方面和地方差异, and respect the expectations of the parties. This is what arbitration should be about. 例如, 有许多问题需要考虑当试图加强在中东的裁决，这将是典型的当地文化 (在迪拜证人的宣誓是有问题的，如果适当的管理形式不能使用, 和最高上诉法院卡塔尔撤销裁决，因为它不是在卡塔尔埃米尔的名义呈现).
Clients may eventually feel cheated by the use of a model procedure as they chose arbitration as a means to settle their disputes at least in part for its procedural flexibility. Clients may also view a harmonized procedure as taking less of their individual expectations into account.
Arguments presented during a Young Arbitrator’s Forum Panel Presentation by speakers:
- 埃莱奥诺雷Caroit (Castaldi, Mourre, & 伙伴)
- 洛林热尔米尼 (国王 & 斯伯丁)
- 马修Secomb - 主持人 (白色 & 案件)
- 托马斯应用Granier (国际刑事法院)
- 弗洛里安GRISEL (德克特)