Most arbitration rules of the leading arbitration institutions have today introduced the possibility of appointing an Emergency Arbitrator who will decide on Interim Measures (including the ICC, LCIA ah, SIAC ah, the HKIAC and the SCC).
Sharciyadan ayaa lagu sii kordheysa ee dhinacyadu isticmaalaan si aad u codsato tallaabooyin ku meel gaarka ah. The Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (“SCC”) has recently seen a significant increase in the number of requests for SCC Emergency Arbitrator. Sida laga soo xigtay machadka, lixdii bilood ee ugu horreeyay 2016, SCC ayaa arkay tiradii ugu badnayd ee codsiyada magacaabidda garqaadaha Degdegga ah. Wadar ah 9 codsiyada ayaa loo gudbiyay, of which two were based on investment treaty protection agreements. If a decision on interim measures is needed to provisionally ensure a party’s claim, ka hor bilaabaan of heshiisiin ah, xisbiga codsan karaan in ay SCC ee magacaabidda garqaadaha Degdegga ah iyada oo la raacayo Xeerarka SCC ee. Inta u dhaxaysa 2014 iyo 2015, SCC ka helay guud ahaan codsiyada shan oo kaliya dhexdhexaadiye Degdegga ah. Maxaa yeelay, dhammaan codsiyada gudbiyay dhexeeya 1 January iyo 30 June 2016, magacaabidda garqaadaha deg-deg ah la sameeyey gudahood 24 saacadood laga bilaabo marka codsiga la xareeyay. Waqtiga u dhexeeya gudbinta iyo go'aanka kala duwanaayeen inta u dhaxaysa 5 iyo 8 maalmood. Saddex xaaladood lagu soo gabagabeeyay gudahood 5 maalmood. Lix xaaladood lagu soo gabagabeeyay gudahood 6 iyo 8 maalmood.
The recent Evrobalt LLC versus the Republic of Moldova Respondent Award on Emergency Measures sheds light on when interim relief will be granted by Emergency Arbitrators.
Garqaadaha Emergency An oo Xilka laga Request for a Tallaabooyinka Emergency Against Moldova
Evrobalt LLC, shirkad Ruush, oo doonay inay hakiyaan go'aanka maamul ansixiyay bishii March 2016 by Bank National Moldova ayaa in ganaax xuquuqda saamileyda qaarkood ee Moldova Agroindbank oo wuxuu siiyey 3 bilood in ay nafsadooda danahooda in bangiga. Evrobalt codsatay in SCC ee gargaarka degdegga ah ee dabayaaqadii May, maalmood oo kaliya ka dib markii sideed buuxinta ogeysiis ah oo muran ka yar heshiis maalgashi laba geesoodka ah ee Russia-Moldova.
Inkasta oo ogaaney in Qodobka 32 of the SCC Rules affords the Emergency Arbitrator the power to issue interim measures in broad terms: “wax tallaabooyin ku meel gaarka ah . . . deem[ed] appropriate", the Emergency Arbitrator indicated that Article 32 of the SCC Rules does not spell out the requirements that must be satisfied in order to issue interim measures; nor does Appendix II of the SCC Rules. Sida laga soo xigtay garqaadaha Degdegga ah, shuruudaha waa kuwan, habase, ool ah sina, whether one applies Swedish law (as the law of the seat of the present Appendix II proceedings) or international law (as the law which governs the Treaty claims asserted by the Claimant). Articles 17-17A of Law Model UNCITRAL ku Rules Ganacsiga Caalamiga ah 2010 codify shuruudahan. Qodobka 26 of the UNCITRAL Rules reads in material part as follows:
"2. qiyaas An ku meel gaarka ah waa cabbir ku meel gaar ah ay, waqti kasta ka hor inta aan la soo saarin ee abaalmarinta uu ku khilaafka waxaa ugu danbeyn go'aansaday, tribunal garqaadaha amartay in xisbiga a, tusaale oo xad la'aan, to:
(a) Maintain or restore the status quo pending determination of the dispute;
(b) Take action that would prevent, ama ka fogaadaan talaabo in ay u badan tahay in ay keeni, (i) current or imminent harm or (ii) prejudice to the arbitral process itself;
(c) Provide a means of preserving assets out of which a subsequent award may be satisfied; or
(d) Preserve evidence that may be relevant and material to the resolution of the dispute.
3. Qaybaha codsaday qiyaas ku meel gaar hoos cutubyada 2 (a) to (c) shall satisfy the arbitral tribunal that:
(a) Harm not adequately reparable by an award of damages is likely to result if the measure is not ordered, and such harm substantially outweighs the harm that is likely to result to the party against whom the measure is directed if the measure is granted; and
(b) There is a reasonable possibility that the requesting party will succeed on the merits of the claim. go'aan ku saabsan suurtagalnimada this ma saameyn doonaan ikhtiyaar ee maxkamadda Garqaad ee samaynta go'aan kasta oo ku xiga. "
Regarding admissibility, the Emergency Arbitrator indicated that measures with effects equivalent to the definitive relief sought in the main proceedings cannot be sought by way of interim relief. Taasi dhigan lahaa in tuurida sheegashada u qalantid, taas oo dabcan impermissible hoos dacwadaha degdegga ah. The Emergency Arbitrator retained that Evrobalt’s requests do not amount to any such disposition, siiyo qof si cad meel-gaar ah oo ay leeyihiin, oo waxay sidaas daraaddeed oggolaan karo waa.
Si kastaba ha ahaatee, the Emergency Arbitrator found that the criteria of risk of irrevocable harm or enforceability of the award was not met. The Claimant had asserted that unless the relief requested was granted, waa "will irrevocably lose its rights as a shareholder of the Bank (which rights are at the very centre of the Dispute) and any subsequent award in the Claimant’s favour will be rendered effectively unenforceable". The question that the Emergency Arbitrator found to be central was whether the harm that the injunctions sought by the Claimant sought to avert were or were not “ku filan reparable by abaalmarinta ah magdhow". Waa in dhammaan waxyeelo ka soo muuqday, dhabta ah iyo dhow, associated with the Claimant’s investment could be made good by an award of damages. And the Emergency Arbitrator saw no reason why that harm could not be properly assessed by the Tribunal in the main proceedings.
Garqaadaha Degdegga ah ayaa gaaray go'aankan, taas waxaa laga heli karaa hoose, and therefore dismissed Claimant’s request without the participation of the Respondent in the proceedings.
– Andrian Beregoi, Law Aceris